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After a long winter and the arrival of spring, many growers want to get into the field. However, planting too early can have a negative impact on yield. It is important to plant according to soil temperature and conditions and be aware of potential issues caused by cold, wet soils.
Corn requires a soil temperature of 50 °F to germinate and grow. Temperatures below the optimum can cause seeds to remain dormant and become more vulnerable to diseases, insects, and animal predators. Planting into cold and/or wet soils can lead to numerous problems.
In this region, corn is often planted before the optimum window in an attempt to get all the corn acres planted. Decreases in yield potential can occur when corn is planted after the optimum planting window, while early planted corn can have a higher yield potential. According to Michigan State University, the best time to plant corn in much of Michigan is from the beginning to middle of May. Studies have shown that there were no agronomic or economic advantages to planting corn before April 20. Due to the short optimum planting window, most growers plant some corn before and after the optimum dates. The long term forecast should also be considered when evaluating conditions for planting. Planting should be delayed if the soil conditions are not right. Michigan State University indicates that planting can be delayed until early May without a yield penalty.1 If late planting does occur, it may be beneficial to plant earlier maturing corn products.
Table 1 lists the usual planting dates, in most years, based on 20 years of data and knowledge from industry specialists, reported by the USDA. The ‘Beginning Date’ designates when planting is approximately 5% complete, ‘Most Active’ designates when 15% to 85% of planting is complete, and ‘Ending Date’ designates when 95% of planting is complete.
Planting when soil temperature and conditions are favorable is very important to give the crop the best chance of emerging properly and getting off to a good start. Waiting for good soil temperatures and conditions may help avoid chilling injury, disease, lack of oxygen to the seeds, and restricted plant growth, which can all lead to poor emergence. However, in some instances, such as a late spring frost, injury may be unavoidable. Although it is important to plant within the acceptable planting window for the region and crop, rushing to plant in cold, wet conditions can lead to yield reducing problems later.
1 Silva, G. 2018. When is the best time to plant corn in Michigan? Michigan State University Extension. http://msue.anr.msu.edu
2United State Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service. October 2010. Field crops usual planting and harvesting dates. 3 Sylvester, P. April 9, 2008. Corn planting - Do's and don'ts. University of Delaware Cooperative Extension. Reprinted from "Tips for successful corn establishment" in the C.O.R.N. Newsletter 2008-08, 2008 from the Ohio State University. Web sources verified 4/18/2018. 140331080210